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... the U.S. population had reached 97,225,000 and stretched across 48 states with the additions of Arizona and New Mexico into the Union.
... the former Princeton President and New Jersey Governor Woodrow Wilson was inaugurated on March 4, 1913 as the thirty-third U.S. president. His first achievements in the year included the establishment of the U.S. Federal Reserve.
... the average life expectancy in the United States was 50 years for males and 55 years for females. Tuberculosis, pneumonia, and heart disease were the leading causes of mortality in 1913.
... the Ford Motor Company pioneered the moving assembly line. As a result, a single automobile could now be manufactured in just under 2.5 hours.
... the 69th Regiment Armory in New York City, America’s first modern art exhibit is held marking the introduction of “Cubism,” “Dadaism,” “Fauvism,” and “Abstract Expressionism” into the American lexicon.
... the baseball world saw Frank “Home Run” Baker bash a league leading 12 home runs throughout the 1913 season. Baker’s Philadelphia Athletics would beat the New York Giants in the “Fall Classic” to capture their third World Series in a row.
In 1913, the Navy Medical Department was represented stateside and overseas by 15 active duty dentists, 1,234 Hospital Corpsmen,130 nurses, and 292 physicians. Navy physicians were still called “surgeons.” Dentists were referred to as “dental surgeons.” Navy Nurses could be addressed as “superintendent,” and “chief,” if they were in leadership roles; having no rank in 1913, most nurses were commonly addressed as “Miss.” Corpsmen could be “Hospital Stewards,” or “Hospital Apprentices.” The Navy operated hospitals stateside and abroad in Annapolis, Md., Brooklyn, N.Y., Cañacao, P.I., Chelsea, Mass., Great Lakes, Ill., Guam, Guantanamo Bay (Cuba), Las Animas, Colo., Mare Island, Calif., Narragansett Bay, R.I., Norfolk, Va., Olongapo, P.I., Philadelphia, Pa., Port Royal, S.C., Portsmouth, N.H., Puget Sound, Wash., Tutuila (America Samoa), Washington, D.C. and Yokohama (Japan).
Venereal diseases are the leading cause for admission into naval hospitals in 1913. Some 7,320 Sailors and Marines are admitted with gonorrhea and syphilis alone accounting for 120,896 sick days. Smallpox was still a health issue in the Navy. In December 1913, a smallpox outbreak hit the crew of USS Ohio leading to five deaths. Throughout the year smallpox accounted for 681 sick days for Navy and Marine Corps personnel.
Salaries for Navy medical personnel varied based on seniority, and position. Senior physicians serving as Fleet Surgeons and Medical Directors could earn up to $4,400 per year. Assistant surgeons with less than five years of service earned a total of $1,700 per year. The Navy Nurse Corps’ most senior nurse (Superintendent) earned $1,800 per year, whereas all other Navy nurses were paid between $50 and $65 per month, based on seniority. Senior hospital corpsmen (Hospital Stewards) earned $60 per month and Hospital Apprentices First Class earned $30 per month and Hospital Apprentices made a mere $15 per month.
Navy physicians were sent on special details throughout 1913 to investigate: environmental conditions of submarines, deep sea diving, the Alaska Coal industry, and the Vitamin deficiency disease Pellagra.
In 1913, there are still no authorized uniforms for Navy dental and medical officers serving with expeditionary forces. The custom in 1913 is for dentists and physicians to wear enlisted men’s khaki uniforms. All sorts of variegated makeshift uniforms are observed.
For the first time, vacuum cleaners are installed at all naval hospitals proving “eminently satisfactory.”
New naval tests are prescribed for officers who apply for aviation duty to ensure all applicants have “perfect control of their physical and mental faculties.”
In 1913, Navy Surgeon General Charles Stokes recommended that ear protection be made available to all Sailors. Stokes wrote that “The necessity of such a device is becoming more generally appreciated, and men are more willing than formerly to protect themselves in this way.”
In 1913, Navy surgeon Ammen Farenholt followed up on his report dated 1908 on tattooing in the Navy. Farenholt studied 2.5 years’ worth (2,100 recruits) of enlistment records of the United States Marine recruiting office at San Francisco, Calif. He compared the data with that of Navy recruits from his previous study and found remarkable similarities.
Frequency of Tattoos (out of 33%):