Key findings:Validation of the Response to Stressful Experiences Scale (RSES) with military members and veterans resulted in a five-factor scale with good internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and convergent, discriminant and concurrent validity with other measures of resilience. The factors included 1) meaning-making and restoration, 2) active coping, 3) cognitive flexibility, 4) spirituality and 5) self-efficacy. RSES scores were negatively associated with PTSD and depression symptoms and accounted for unique variance in PTSD symptoms above and beyond existing resilience scales, such as the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale.
Study type:Scale development and validation
Sample:1,014 active-duty and reserve military personnel and veterans
Implications:The RSES provides a new valid measure of individual differences in cognitive, emotional and behavioral responses to life's most stressful events and could be used to complement existing measures of resilience, such as the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale.
Johnson, D.C., Polusny, M.A., Erbes, C.R., King D., King, L., Litz, B.T., et al. (2011). Development and initial validation of the Response to Stressful Experiences Scale. Military Medicine, 175 (2), 161-9.