1999 Enteric Diseases Publications

Abu-Elyazeed, R., T. F. Wierzba, et al. (1999). "Epidemiology of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli diarrhea in a pediatric cohort in a periurban area of lower Egypt." J Infect Dis 179(2): 382-9.

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) are diverse pathogens that express heat-labile (LT) and/or heat-stable (ST) enterotoxins, yet little is known about whether epidemiologic patterns of pediatric ETEC diarrhea vary by the expressed ETEC toxin phenotype. In total, 242 Egyptian children aged 3 years were prospectively followed in 1993- 1995. ETEC episodes were detected during twice-weekly home visits, and asymptomatic ETEC excretion was identified from monthly cross-sectional surveys. ETEC episodes were 0.6 per child-year. ST-only ETEC was 2.6 times (P.001) more common in warmer than cooler months, while LT-only ETEC showed no seasonal variation. Ownership of a household sanitary latrine, but not breast-feeding, was associated with a lower risk of both enterotoxin phenotypes. Coexpression of a colonization factor by LT- or ST-only ETEC strengthened the association with diarrhea. These findings indicate that the epidemiologic patterns of LT-only and ST- only ETEC are not identical and that disease interventions should include improved household sanitation.

El-Gendy, A., N. El-Ghorab, et al. (1999). "Identification of Shigella flexneri subserotype 1c in rural Egypt." J Clin Microbiol 37(3): 873-4.

    In a population-based study of diarrhea in rural, northern Egypt, 60 Shigella flexneri strains were identified, of which 10 could not be definitively serotyped. Serological analysis with commercial reagents suggested that they were serotype 1, but the strains failed to react with subserotype 1a- or 1b-specific antibodies. All 10 strains reacted with MASF 1c, a monoclonal antibody specific for a provisional S. flexneri subserotype, 1c, first identified in Bangladesh and not previously detected outside of that region. Our results show that S. flexneri subserotype 1c is not unique to Bangladesh and that the inability to detect it may reflect both the limited use of suitable screening methods and the rarity of this subserotype.

Girgis, N. I., T. Butler, et al. (1999). "Azithromycin versus ciprofloxacin for treatment of uncomplicated typhoid fever in a randomized trial in Egypt that included patients with multidrug resistance." Antimicrob Agents Chemother 43(6): 1441-4.

    To compare clinical and bacteriological efficacies of azithromycin and ciprofloxacin for typhoid fever, 123 adults with fever and signs of uncomplicated typhoid fever were entered into a randomized trial. Cultures of blood were positive for Salmonella typhi in 59 patients and for S. paratyphi A in 3 cases; stool cultures were positive for S. typhi in 11 cases and for S. paratyphi A in 1 case. Multiple-drug resistance (MDR; resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole) was present in isolates of 21 of 64 patients with positive cultures. Of these 64 patients, 36 received 1 g of azithromycin orally once on the first day, followed by 500 mg given orally once daily on the next 6 days; 28 patients received 500 mg of ciprofloxacin orally twice daily for 7 days. Blood cultures were repeated on days 4 and 10 after the start of therapy, and stool cultures were done on days 4, 10, and 28 after the start of therapy. All patients in both groups improved during therapy and were cured. Defervescence (maximum daily temperatures of </=38 degrees C) occurred at the following times [mean +/- standard deviation (range)] after the start of therapy: 3.8 +/- 1.1 (2 to 7) days with azithromycin and 3.3 +/- 1.0 (1 to 5) days with ciprofloxacin. No relapses were detected. Cultures of blood and stool during and after therapy were negative in all cases, except for one patient treated with azithromycin who had a positive blood culture on day 4. These results indicated that azithromycin and ciprofloxacin were similarly effective, both clinically and bacteriologically, against typhoid fever caused by both sensitive organisms and MDR S. typhi.

Hickey, T. E., S. Baqar, et al. (1999). "Campylobacter jejuni-stimulated secretion of interleukin-8 by INT407 cells." Infect Immun 67(1): 88-93.

    Incubation of INT407 cells with various clinical isolates of Campylobacter jejuni resulted in secretion of interleukin-8 (IL-8) at levels ranging from 96 to 554 pg/ml at 24 h. The strains which produced the highest levels of IL-8 secretion were 81-176 and BT44. Induction of IL-8 secretion required live cells of 81-176 and was dependent on de novo protein synthesis. Site-specific mutants of 81-176, which were previously shown to be defective in adherence and invasion, resulted in reduced levels of secretion of IL-8, and cheY mutants of strains 81-176 and 749, which are hyperadherent and hyperinvasive, resulted in higher levels of IL-8 secretion. Another mutant of 81-176, which adheres at about 43% of the wild-type levels but is noninvasive, also showed marked reduction in IL-8 levels, suggesting that invasion is necessary for high levels of IL-8 secretion. When gentamicin was added to INT407 cells at 2 h after infection with 81-176, IL-8 secretion 22 h later was equivalent to that of controls without gentamicin, suggesting that the events which trigger induction and release of IL-8 occur early in the interactions of bacteria and eukaryotic cells.

Holmes, J. L., C. D. Kirkwood, et al. (1999). "Characterization of unusual G8 rotavirus strains isolated from Egyptian children." Arch Virol 144(7): 1381-96.

    We report the first detection of P[14], G8 rotaviruses isolated in Egypt from the stool of children participating in a 3 year study of rotavirus epidemiology. Two strains, EGY1850 and EGY2295, were characterized by a serotyping enzyme immunoassay (EIA), virus neutralization, and sequence analysis of the genes encoding VP7 and the VP8* portion of the VP4 gene. These two strains shared a high level of homology of their VP7s (87.8% nucleotide [nt], 97.2% amino acid [aa]) and VP4s (89.6% nt, 97.1% aa) and had the highest VP7 identity to serotype G8 (> 82% nt, > 92% aa) and VP4 identity to genotype P[14] (> or = 81% nt, > 91% aa) strains. Serological results with a VP7 G8-specific and VP4 P[14]-specific neutralizing monoclonal antibodies supported the genetic classification of EGY1850 and EGY2295 as P[14], G8. Genogroup analysis supports earlier findings that human G8 rotaviruses may be genetically related to bovine rotaviruses. These findings demonstrate that our understanding of the geographic distribution of rotavirus strains is incomplete, emphasize the need to monitor rotavirus serotypes, and extend the known distribution of serotype G8 and genotype P[14] strains in Africa.

Khalil, S. B., F. J. Cassels, et al. (1999). "Characterization of an enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli strain from Africa expressing a putative colonization factor." Infect Immun 67(8): 4019-26.

    E. coliAn enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strain of serotype O114:H- that expressed both heat-labile and heat-stable enterotoxins and tested negative for colonization factors (CF) was isolated from a child with diarrhea in Egypt. This strain, WS0115A, induced hemagglutination of bovine erythrocytes and adhered to the enterocyte-like cell line Caco- 2, suggesting that it may elaborate novel fimbriae. Surface-expressed antigen purified by differential ammonium sulfate precipitation and column chromatography yielded a single protein band with M(r) 14,800 when resolved by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (16% polyacrylamide). A monoclonal antibody against this putative fimbrial antigen was generated and reacted with strain WS0115A and also with CS1-, CS17-, and CS19-positive strains in a dot blot assay. Reactivity was temperature dependent, with cells displaying reactivity when grown at 37 degrees C but not when grown at 22 degrees C. Immunoblot analysis of a fimbrial preparation from strain WS0115A showed that the monoclonal antibody reacted with a single protein band. Electron microscopy and immunoelectron microscopy revealed fimbria-like structures on the surface of strain WS0115A. These structures were rigid and measured 6.8 to 7.4 nm in diameter. Electrospray mass- spectrometric analysis showed that the mass of the purified fimbria was 14,965 Da. The N-terminal sequence of the fimbria established that it was a member of the CFA/I family, with sequence identity to the amino terminus of CS19, a new CF recently identified in India. Cumulatively, our results suggest that this fimbria is CS19. Screening of a collection of ETEC strains isolated from children with diarrhea in Egypt found that 4.2% of strains originally reported as CF negative were positive for this CF, suggesting that it is biologically relevant in the pathogenesis of ETEC.

Lee, L. H., E. Burg, 3rd, et al. (1999). "Evaluation of a truncated recombinant flagellin subunit vaccine against Campylobacter jejuni." Infect Immun 67(11): 5799-805.

    A recombinant protein comprising the maltose-binding protein (MBP) of Escherichia coli fused to amino acids 5 to 337 of the FlaA flagellin of Campylobacter coli VC167 was evaluated for immunogenicity and protective efficacy against challenge by a heterologous strain of campylobacter, Campylobacter jejuni 81-176, in two murine models. The sequence of the flaA gene of strain 81-176 revealed a predicted protein which was 98.1% similar to that of VC167 FlaA over the region expressed in the fusion protein. Mice were immunized intranasally with two doses of 3 to 50 microgram of MBP-FlaA, given 8 days apart, with or without 5 microgram of the mutant E. coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LT(R192G)) as a mucosal adjuvant. The full range of MBP-FlaA doses were effective in eliciting antigen-specific serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) responses, and these responses were enhanced by adjuvant use, except in the highest dosing group. Stimulation of FlaA-specific intestinal secretory IgA (sIgA) responses required immunization with higher doses of MBP-FlaA (>/=25 microgram) or coadministration of lower doses with the adjuvant. When vaccinated mice were challenged intranasally 26 days after immunization, the best protection was seen in animals given 50 microgram of MBP-FlaA plus LT(R192G). The protective efficacies of this dose against disease symptoms and intestinal colonization were 81.1 and 84%, respectively. When mice which had been immunized with 50 microgram of MBP-FlaA plus LT(R192G) intranasally were challenged orally with 8 x 10(10), 8 x 10(9), or 8 x 10(8) cells of strain 81-176, the protective efficacies against intestinal colonization at 7 days postinfection were 71.4, 71.4, and 100%, respectively.

Naficy, A. B., R. Abu-Elyazeed, et al. (1999). "Epidemiology of rotavirus diarrhea in Egyptian children and implications for disease control." Am J Epidemiol 150(7): 770-7.

    Reliable epidemiologic data are essential for formulating effective policy to control rotavirus disease through immunization. The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiology of rotavirus diarrhea in a population-based cohort of children under 3 years of age residing in Abu Homos, Egypt, in 1995-1996. Rotavirus diarrhea incidence rates (episodes per person-year) were 0.13 for infants aged 6 months, 0.61 for those aged 6-11 months, 0.17 for those aged 12-23 months, and 0.15 for those aged 24-35 months. Fifty-six percent of children with rotavirus diarrhea had clinical dehydration; 90% of rotavirus diarrheal episodes occurred between July and November. In infants under 1 year of age, receipt of breast milk was associated with a lower incidence of rotavirus diarrhea. No other sociodemographic or environmental factor was found to be significantly associated with rotavirus diarrhea. Of 46 rotavirus isolates with strains identified, 41 (89%) were G serotypes 1 and 2. Rotavirus diarrhea was a major cause of morbidity in this cohort. Promotion of breastfeeding may exert a protective effect in young infants in this setting, but improvements in water and sanitation are unlikely to be effective preventive measures. The use of effective immunization against rotavirus in early infancy should be considered a public health priority.

Peruski, L. F., Jr., B. A. Kay, et al. (1999). "Phenotypic diversity of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli strains from a community-based study of pediatric diarrhea in periurban Egypt." J Clin Microbiol 37(9): 2974-8.

    No past studies of diarrhea in children of the Middle East have examined in detail the phenotypes of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains, which are important pathogens in this setting. During a prospective study conducted from November 1993 to September 1995 with 242 children under 3 years of age with diarrhea living near Alexandria, Egypt, 125 episodes of diarrhea were positive for ETEC. ETEC strains were available for 98 of these episodes, from which 100 ETEC strains were selected and characterized on the basis of enterotoxins, colonization factors (CFs), and O:H serotypes. Of these representative isolates, 57 produced heat-stable toxin (ST) only, 34 produced heat- labile toxin (LT) only, and 9 produced both LT and ST. Twenty-three ETEC strains expressed a CF, with the specific factors being CF antigen IV (CFA/IV; 10 of 23; 43%), CFA/II (5 of 23; 22%), CFA/I (3 of 23; 13%), PCFO166 (3 of 23; 13%), and CS7 (2 of 23; 9%). No ETEC strains appeared to express CFA/III, CS17, or PCFO159. Among the 100 ETEC strains, 47 O groups and 20 H groups were represented, with 59 O:H serotypes. The most common O serogroups were O159 (13 strains) and O43 (10 strains). O148 and O21 were each detected in five individual strains, O7 and O56 were each detected in four individual strains, O73, O20, O86, and O114 were each detected in three individual strains, and O23, O78, O91, O103, O128, and O132 were each detected in two individual strains. The most common H serogroups were H4 (16 strains), 12 of which were of serogroup O159; H2 (9 strains), all of which were O43; H18 (6 strains); H30 (6 strains); and H28 (5 strains); strains of the last three H serogroups were all O148. Cumulatively, our results suggest a high degree of clonal diversity of disease-associated ETEC strains in this region. As a low percentage of these strains expressed a CF, it remains possible that other adhesins for which we either did not assay or that are as yet undiscovered are prevalent in this region. Our findings point out some potential barriers to effective immunization against ETEC diarrhea in this population and emphasize the need to identify additional protective antigens commonly expressed by ETEC for inclusion in future vaccine candidates.

Savarino, S. J., E. R. Hall, et al. (1999). "Oral, inactivated, whole cell enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli plus cholera toxin B subunit vaccine: results of the initial evaluation in children. PRIDE Study Group." J Infect Dis 179(1): 107-14.

    Two randomized, double-blinded trials assessed the safety and immunogenicity of an oral, killed enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) plus cholera toxin B subunit vaccine in Egyptian children. Two doses of vaccine or E. coli K-12 were given 2 weeks apart to 105 6- to 12-year-olds and 97 2- to 5-year-olds. Safety was monitored for 3 days after each dose. Blood was collected before immunization and 7 days after each dose to measure immune responses. Few children reported postdosing symptoms, with no differences in the frequency of symptoms between treatment groups. Most vaccinees had an IgA antibody-secreting cell response against colonization factor antigen I (100%, 6-12 years; 95%, 2-5 years), coli surface antigen 2 (92%, 6-12 years; 83%, 2-5 years), and coli surface antigen 4 (93%, 6-12 years). Vaccination evoked a >/=4-fold rise in antitoxic IgA and IgG titers in 93% and 81% of children, respectively. In conclusion, the oral ETEC vaccine was safe and immunogenic in 2- to 12-year-old children, justifying further evaluation in infants.

Szymanski, C. M., R. Yao, et al. (1999). "Evidence for a system of general protein glycosylation in Campylobacter jejuni." Mol Microbiol 32(5): 1022-30.

    A genetic locus from Campylobacter jejuni 81-176 (O:23, 36) has been characterized that appears to be involved in glycosylation of multiple proteins, including flagellin. The lipopolysaccharide (LPS) core of Escherichia coli DH5alpha containing some of these genes is modified such that it becomes immunoreactive with O:23 and O:36 antisera and loses reactivity with the lectin wheat germ agglutinin (WGA). Site- specific mutation of one of these genes in the E. coli host causes loss of O:23 and O:36 antibody reactivity and restores reactivity with WGA. However, site-specific mutation of each of the seven genes in 81-176 failed to show any detectable changes in LPS. Multiple proteins from various cellular fractions of each mutant showed altered reactivity by Western blot analyses using O:23 and O:36 antisera. The changes in protein antigenicity could be restored in one of the mutants by the presence of the corresponding wild-type allele in trans on a shuttle vector. Flagellin, which is known to be a glycoprotein, was one of the proteins that showed altered reactivity with O:23 and O:36 antiserum in the mutants. Chemical deglycosylation of protein fractions from the 81- 176 wild type suggests that the other proteins with altered antigenicity in the mutants are also glycosylated.